PRO PATRIA

The First World War Memorial of the Navy's Heroes
BUDAPEST
A Cs. és Kir. Haditengerészet és magyar hősi halottainak emlékműve.
Denkmal zu Ehren der k.u.k. Kriegsmarine und deren Heldentoten.
War Memorial of the Imperial and Royal Navy and its Hungarian dead heroes.
Monument elevé á la mémorie de la flotte impérialer et royale et aux marins hongrois tombés pendant la guerre.
Monumento in memoria della I. e R. Marina da guerra e dei caduti eroici marinai ungheresi.


The reconstruction of Budapest has started very quickly after the Second World War. The new political regime naturally has revised the status and future of the Statues of the Hungarian Capital city. If a statue was condemned to breaking-down, it could not remain on its place.

The situation of the I. W.W. Memorials was very odd. There were political forces who wanted to demolish all of them, but in those times the Government was based on a political coalition, so these fractions had to respect some tactical considerations.

These political forces wanted to breakdown e.g. the Statue of 32nd Regiment, which unit to-day is considered as the predecessor in title of the Hungarian Defense Forces "Budapest" Guards Regiment. The Memorial (a Statue of a soldier throwing a hand grenade) finally could remain on its place. Its luck originated perhaps from its relative remote site.

The First World War Memorial of the Navy's Heroes, situated at the North side of the bridgehead on Buda of the Bridge PETŐFI, (till 1945 Bridge Miklós HORTHY) had not so much luck. This Memorial was made by the sculptor István Szentgyörgyi and the architect László Miskolczi, and its inauguration was held on 10th October 1937.

The Memorial was the cast iron replica of Fiume's Lighthouse, and there was a little museum in it. The ship's bow cutting the waves was formed after the light cruiser Novara of the Austrian-Hungarian Imperial and Royal Navy. The contemporary interpretation of the Statue Group consisted of two bronze figures (7 m high) was: the Genius of Attack leads the Sailor who is looking for the enemy with a piercing look. This special Memorial was damaged during the siege of Budapest, and when the bridge was demolished. The repair of the Memorial was negated because of political reasons, and bronze parts were stored for a time, but later on were melted down, and the Lighthouse was demolished.

Presently there were recommendations for the reconstruction of the Memorial, but till this time every entity evaded its revival because of the high costs.

THE FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF HUNGARIAN NAVY TILL ITS ABOLISHMENT


The greater part of our Earth is covered by oceans and seas, and only its smaller part are formed from continents and islands. Presently the most Hungarian people have not much knowledge about these greater parts, and about the past of our Navy and Merchant Marine. This is true especially in the remnants of our country, which, after a thousand years, was deprived of its very little, 6 km long coastline by the Peace Treaties of Trianon (1921), a coastline which used to be internationally recognized, thus recognized by the successor countries, too; although our Austrian-Hungarian common Navy had such a strength in early years of the 20th Century what the strategists of the greatest Naval Power had to take into consideration. This Navy had fought with success on the Adriatic-Sea during the I. W.W. with the overwhelming force of the united strength of Italian, French and British Navies, and guarded well the communication lines of the Army fighting in Montenegro and Albania. The surface units, submarines and the flying boats of the Austrian-Hungarian Navy have executed efficient attacks against the enemy bases and its shipping routes. The Flag of the Austrian-Hungarian Navy was hauled down on 31st October 1918, when the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy, which was protected so proudly by our common Navy, disappeared. The last Commander-in-Chief of the Navy was a Hungarian Rear Admiral (promoted to Vice-Admiral on the last day). We would like to rectify this inadequate knowledge and will draw up in sketchy form the formation and development of the Hungarian Navy till its abolishment.

The periods before and during of the Occupancy of Homeland. The Occupancy of Home (The Hungarian Tribes have settled in the Carpathian-Basin in the year of 895 A.D., and we call it Occupancy of Homeland.)

The periods before and during of the Occupancy of Homeland
There are only vague and faded traditions about the origin of our predecessors. It is sure that our ancestors have left their ancient living place (Magna Hungaria) in the early years of the 5th Century, and wandered toward West... (continued)
The period of House of Árpád

The geographical symbols of the new homeland got by Árpád,
the Rivers Duna, Tisza, Dráva and Száva, have appeared already with silver stripes on the originally red flag of the Occupancy in time of Sovereign Géza... (continued)
The period of Anjou Age

The right to set up a King has reverted to the Nation after extinction of Árpád House' Kings.
In personal union with the Holy Roman Empire
1433 - 1806


This conjoint state organization was created as a result of Hungarian King, Zsigmond's initiation. He arrived at our country in the year of 1386 to liberate his wife, Mária, from the captivity in the city of Novigrad. The majority of the Hungarian aristocracy this time has placed its confidence in Margrave of Brandenburg...
The Battle of Helgoland on 9th May 1864





In the year of 1863, after the crowning of IX Christian Danish King, the Parliament of Denmark has decided in its November Institution to annex the all territory of Schleswig-Holstein in spite of the London Convention of 1851. Prussia as the leader of Allied North German States sent an ultimatum to the Danish Government, but received a rejection. Therefore the German States on 7th December 1863 have arrived at a decision to make an armed intervention.

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The Battle of Lissa, 1866



The Imperial-Royal Fleet, in which also served a number of Hungarians, had gained a glorious victory on 20th July 1866 over the most superior Italian Fleet. The Austria, who was loosing the war with Prussia, was also pushed by the Italians, and in this urgency the united Italia's oppressive superiority on the seas also played an important role. Against the 7 slow and weakly armoured and equipped first class vessels of the Imperial-Royal Navy, the Italians could muster 12 modern armoured warships and 8 new screw steam frigates.

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HUNGARY IN THE YEAR OF 1867




THE PERIOD AFTER COMPROMISE BETWEEN AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY






The Austro-Hungarian Empire was a dual monarchy of Austria and Hungary

DISCOVERY OF FRANZ JOSEPH LAND




The northest point of Europe


THE JOURNEY OF "TEGETTHOFF" IN THE POLAR REGION

Pár évvel ezelőtt a National Geographic TV csatornán többször bemutattak egy osztrák-filmet, mely arról szólt, hogyan készítettek el nagy költséggel, részben eredeti helyszíneken egy dokumentum jellegű játékfilmet a "Tegetthoff" expedíciójáról.

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A FEHÉR EMBER ÚTJA
(COLOMBUSTÓL PEARYIG)

EREDETI KÚTFŐK NYOMÁN ÍRTA

DR GÁSPÁR FERENCZ
VOLT CS. ÉS KIR. SORHAJÓ-ORVOS

"A német "Hansa-expeditio" által végzett sarki kutatások alkalmával egy osztrák származású fiatal katonatiszt, Julius Payer főhadnagy tüntette ki magát mint született sarkutazó, mind tudományos készültsége, mind rettenthetetlen bátorsága által. Hazajövetele után éppen aktuálissá vált egy sarki expediczió, a melyet esetleg Payer vezetésére bíznának. Gróf Hans Wilczek, a tudományos törekvéseket mindenkor élénken pártoló osztrák főúr, negyvenezer forintot ajánlott fel erre a czélra, mint kezdeményező alapösszeget. folytatás >>>


Navy' stories 1867 - 1914


THE JOURNEY OF SMS "ALBATROS" IN THE SOLOMONS



In the second half of 19th Century the major Sea Powers in order to demonstrate their strength, have started to send their warships to long trips around the World. This was the so called "flag showing". Besides establishing of political and economic relations, these ships usually have got geographical surveillance tasks, and more than one times these geographical tasks represented the main activities of drafted warships.

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The sailor's Ten Commandments




A "landlubber" wobbler on board!


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... in a winter evening was spinning a yarn to his friends, and told them the following story

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The seamen cartoons about our joint Navy

HUNGARIAN SAILOR SONG
FROM THE EPOCH OF AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN NAVY


Schiffsleutnant úr azt mondta a matróznak,
Maradj vissza édes fiam bizsósnak. folytatás >>>


Splivalo Antal tüzer negyedes dokumentumai

Several documents from the past of our Navy
Contemporaneous postcards

Imperial and Royal Navy





K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

THE ROLE OF AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN NAVY IN THE REPRESSION OF CHINESE BOXER REBELLION





The Boxer Movement or Boxer Rebellion was a Chinese rebellion from November 1899 to September 7, 1901, against foreign influence in areas such as trade, politics, religion and technology occurred in China during the final years of the Manchu rule. The Rebellion began as an anti-foreign, anti-imperialist peasant-based, and in the beginning anti-Chinese Government movement, in Northern China. They attacked foreigners, who were building railroads and violating traditional Chinese doctrines, as well the Christians, who were held responsible for the foreign domination of China. The troops of Chinese Government in the beginning fought against the Boxers, but the Imperial Court skilfully has turned the rebellion entirely against the foreigners. The Chinese Empress has issued an edict, in which she had provided support to the Boxers, drawing heated complaints from foreign diplomats in January, 1900.

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THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE IN 1910





THE K.U.K. NAVY IN THE GREAT WAR IN 1914-1918.


The protected cruiser SMS Kaiserin Elisabeth in defence of Tsingtao, in the Year of 1914


The Navy of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy because of the almost continuous lack of money has decided in the late 1880s to build instead of bigger armoured vessels rather two ships which will have not armour protection, except of the light armoured deck above the engine-room, boilers' room and the magazines. In turn they must have a strong artillery, anti-torpedo boats arms and relative high speed. Officially this two "mixed type" ships, the Kaiser Franz Joseph I and the Kaiserin Elisabeth were called as "protected cruisers" or "mission cruisers". In this article we will study the late career of SMS Kaiserin Elisabeth, although both of them had made more "flag showing" journeys in the Far-East, she was that Austro-Hungarian warship which has trapped into the ring of the enemy Powers, so she had joined to the essentially hopeless defence of the German port, Tsingtao, in the mainland of China.

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AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN BATTLESHIPS



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AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN CRUISERS



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AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN TORPEDO SHIPS



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DESTROYERS OF THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN NAVY



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ACTIVITY OF THE DESTROYERS


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AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN TORPEDO BOATS



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Flags and pendants of the Imperial and Royal Navy



Signal flags of the Imperial and Royal Navy, and their positions





Flags and pendants of the Imperial (and) Royal Navy





The insignias of rank of the Imperial and Royal Navy





The insignias of rank of the Imperial and Royal Navy





The Navy's New Ensign



The Navy's new Ensign was ordered by the Supreme Sovereign's Act, dated on 11th October 1915, together with the Navy's Coat of Arms, which were accepted in advance by Austria, Hungary and the Sovereign.

"I wish, that the Flag of My Army and the Ensign of My Navy, according to the public law, be the proper symbol of that relationship what is existing between two States of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, based on the Pragmatica Sanctio!"

"Hereinafter I give my approval .... That on the Naval Ensign, unchanged in respect of colours, must be shown the ancient Hungarian red-white Coat of Arms beside of the Habsburg House's Coat of Arms!"

"The Navy, on the day to be decided, in the same hour will haul up the new Ensign which will inherit all glorious tradition of My Navy.

I charge My Minister of War, and My Commander-in-Chief of My Navy to execute all necessary actions according to this order.

Dated: Vienna, 11th October 1915.

Franz Joseph under his own hand"


The introduction of the new Ensign was postponed till the end of the War because of the Sovereign's death, but it could not be carried out because of disappearance of Austro-Hungarian Navy, although we will preserve its honour and glory for ever.

EPILOGUE